Python Function and Arguments

Filed Under: Python

Dear learners, in this tutorial we are going to learn Python Function and Arguments. Previously we learned about Python loop. Hope that you will enjoy learning.

Python Function and Arguments

Basically function is used to do some specific work. We can split a large task to some work distribution and do them separately which will enable us to debug program easily. The basic structure of a Python function is given below:

def function_name( arguments ) :
        #perform tasks

Python function arguments can be one or more. If it is more than one, they has to be separated by comma. For example, you want to calculate result = x * ( y + z ).

Let, p = y + x
So, result = x * p

First, we have to calculate p, and then, putting the value of p we have to calculate result. To do so, we will create separate functions. The following code will illustrate about Python function.

create a function for adding two variables. It will be needed to calculate p=y+z
def calculateP( y , z ) :
        return int( y ) + int( z )

create a function for multiplying two variables. It will be needed to calculate p=y+z
def calculateResult( x, p ) :
        return int( x ) * int( p )

#Now this is the beginning of main program
x = input('x: ')
y = input('y: ')
z = input('z: ')

#Now Calculate <strong>p</strong>
p = calculateP ( y , z )

#Now calculate <strong>result</strong>
result = calculateResult( x , p )

#Print the result

The output of the following code will be

================== RESTART: /home/imtiaz/Desktop/ ==================
x: 2
y: 2
z: 3

Passing Variable Number of Arguments

If you don’t know how many arguments you have to pass in the function then you can allow the function to take variable number of arguments. To do this you need to add an asterisk(*) right before your argument name. But there is some condition, that your special argument has to be the last argument of the function and it is allowed to have only one argument of that kind in one function. The following example will help you to understand the variable number of arguments in python function.

def varFunc(name,*args):
        print("This is the first argument "+str(name))
        #This print will make you understand that the args is a list
        for item in args:

print("First time:")
varFunc("of 1st function call",2, 3, 4, 5)

print("Second time:")
varFunc("of 2nd function call","asd","Bcd")

print("Third time:")
varFunc("and only argument of 3rd function call")

The Output will be:
python function, python function arguments, python function variable arguments example

Passing Key-Value pair as Optional Python Function Arguments

You can also pass arguments by keywords, so that the order you send argument does not matter. To do so, you have to add two asterisks(**) right before the special argument when you define a function. The following example will clear your concept.

def varFunc(name, roll, **option):
        print("Name: "+name)
        print("Roll: "+str(roll))
        if "age" in option :
                print("Age: "+ str(option.get("age")))
        if "gender" in option:
                print("Gender: "+ str(option.get("gender")))

print("First Person")
varFunc("Alice", 234, age=18, gender="female")

print("\nSecond Person")
#See, the order of argument age and gender is different now
varFunc("Bob", 204, gender="male", age=21)

print("\nThird Person")
#We will not pass age as and argument
varFunc("Trudy", 204, gender="male")

Output will be

================== RESTART: /home/imtiaz/Desktop/ ==================
First Person
Name: Alice
Roll: 234
Age: 18
Gender: female

Second Person
Name: Bob
Roll: 204
Age: 21
Gender: male

Third Person
Name: Trudy
Roll: 204
Gender: male

This is all about Python Function and Arguments. Hope that you understood well. For any query feel free to use the comment section below.
Keep you enthusiasm always up for learning new things!

Reference: Official Documentation


  1. Keshava Reddy says:

    Tanks for the details explanation of the functions concept… would be great if you add Passing function as argument in details….if posible

  2. kamna says:

    This is great to see this amazing article. i wanna appreciate your hard work and give full importance towards it.

  3. rolling sky says:

    Thanks for the lesson, it is very detailed, I know more about Python Function and Arguments.

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