In this tutorial, we’ll get into the details of Django Models. Before we do that, let’s quickly set up our Django Project from the terminal.
Execute the following commands one by one:
mkdir JournaldevDjangoModels cd JournalDevDjangoModels virtualenv -p /usr/local/bin/python3 env source env/bin/activate pip3 install django django-admin startproject DjangoModel
python3 manage.py runserver django-admin startapp school
Once we’ve created the school app, we need to add it in the
INSTALLED_APPS inside the
Take note of the models.py file that’s created in the school app. It’ll be the Most Wanted file in this tutorial. Let’s get started.
The database is an important part of any web application. Django Models are a source of information for your data. You can store values in the form of fields in it.
Each Django Model would be held in the database and the fields defined in the Django Models are database fields.
Django Models are used to execute SQL code behind the scene as well.
Let’s create our first Django Model in the models.py file.
Django Model Example
Following is the code from the models.py file:
from django.db import models # Create your models here. class Student(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=30) age = models.IntegerField() email = models.EmailField() website = models.URLField()
Student is a Django Model with four fields.
Django Model Fields
Django Models can have any of the following types of fields CharField, IntegerField, EmailField, URLField, DateField, BooleanField, AutoField, UUIDField, OneToOneField, ManyToOneField.
How to set a primary key?
id = models.AutoField( primary_key=True, )
max_length – Set the maximum number of characters allowed
verbose_name – human readable name of the field
full_name = models.CharField(verbose_name='full name', max_length=100)
null – Setting null equal to True allows us to leave the column as blank. The column would then store NULL as the value.
age = IntegerField(null=True)
blank – Again the field is allowed blank if blank=True. blank is used for Form validations where we can specify if entering in a field is mandatory or not.
choices – This is like a 2-tuple and is used to choose from a list of values.
from django.db import models # Create your models here. class Student(models.Model): SECTION = ( ('A', 'Alpha'), ('B', 'Beta'), ('C', 'Cappa'), ) name = models.CharField(max_length=30) age = models.IntegerField() email = models.EmailField() website = models.URLField() section = models.CharField(max_length=1, choices=SECTION, default=SECTION)
default field option is required in choices unless to put a
How to add this Model to the Database?
python3 manage.py makemigrations school
The above command creates the model.
This is the output from the terminal:
Let’s open the views.py file and create basic Django Models and print them on the screen.
from django.shortcuts import render from school.models import Student from django.http import HttpResponse # Create your views here. def home(request): #Creating an entry objects = Student.objects.all().delete() student = Student(name = "Anupam", email = "firstname.lastname@example.org",age = "24", website = "www.journaldev.com",section="A") student.save() student = Student(name = "Another", email = "email@example.com",age = "21", website = "www.google.com") student.save() objects = Student.objects.all() res ='Printing all Students entries in the DB : <br>' for elt in objects: res += "Name: "+elt.name+"<br>" res += "Age: "+str(elt.age)+"<br>" res += "Section: "+elt.section+"<br>" res += "Section Full Name: "+elt.get_section_display()+"<br>" return HttpResponse(res)
save() method adds the model to the database.
Every time when you load this page new model would get appended. Hence at the beginning, we
delete() all models.
For the choices, to display the right-hand side part we use the auto-generated method
Time to do the URL routing in the
Now run the following two commands:
python3 manage.py migrate python3 manage.py runserver
Alternative way to create a new instance of Django Model:
anupam = Student.objects.create(name = "Anupam", email = "firstname.lastname@example.org",age = "24", website = "www.journaldev.com",section="A")
Besides creating, deleting, retrieving which we have implemented till now, we can search the data as well using filters.
from school.models import Student from django.http import HttpResponse def randomFunctionFilter(request): res = '' object = Student.objects.filter(name = "Anupam") res += "Found : %s students<br>"%len(object) obj = Student.objects.order_by("age") for elt in obj: res += elt.name + '<br>' return HttpResponse(res)
How to Filter greater than and less than?
object = Student.objects.filter(age__lt 10) object = Student.objects.filter(age__gt 20)
Updating the Data
student = Student.objects.get(name='Anupam') student.age = 100 student.save()
student = Student.objects.get(name='Anupam') student.delete()
from django.db import models class Me(models.Model): size = models.IntegerField() class Meta: ordering = ["-size"] verbose_name = "m" verbose_name_plural = "meee" db_table = "Mytable"
ordering = ["-size"] orders in descending order
For the complete list of features refer here
Let’s create a new Django Model and add foreign key
class Teacher(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=100) students = models.ManyToManyField(Student) user = models.ForeignKey('auth.User', on_delete=models.CASCADE) def __str__(self): return self.name
str method defines a human-readable representation of the model that is displayed in the Django admin site and in the Django shell.
Foreign Key is linked to another class. This time a django inbuilt class.
on_delete field option tells what to do when the model is being deleted.
- CASCADE: When the referenced object is deleted, also delete the objects that have references to it (When you remove a blog post, for instance, you might want to delete comments as well).
- PROTECT: Forbid the deletion of the referenced object. To delete it you will have to delete all objects that reference it manually.
- SET_NULL: Set the reference to NULL (requires the field to be nullable). For instance, when you delete a User, you might want to keep the comments he posted on blog posts, but say it was posted by an anonymous (or deleted) user.
- SET_DEFAULT: Set the default value.
through is used to connect two tables through an intermediary class.
Let’s learn about this through an example use case.
Following is our models.py class:
from django.db import models # Create your models here. class Student(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=30) class Teacher(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=100) members = models.ManyToManyField(Student, through='Classroom') class Classroom(models.Model): student = models.ForeignKey(Student, on_delete=models.CASCADE) teacher = models.ForeignKey(Teacher, on_delete=models.CASCADE) date_joined = models.DateField()
Save the file and let’s run the following command in the terminal:
python3 manage.py makemigrations school python3 manage.py migrate python3 manage.py shell
This would open an interactive shell where we can create test data for the above Django Models.
We create sets of individual models and merge them in the classroom.
On querying the Teacher model, the students are automatically updated, thanks to