How to Install Elasticsearch Logstash Kibana (Elastic Stack) on Ubuntu 18.04

Filed Under: Ubuntu

In this guide, you will learn to install Elastic stack on Ubuntu 18.04. Elastic stack, formerly known as ELK stack is a collection or stack of free and opensource software from Elastic Company designed for centralized logging.

It enables the searching, analyzing and visualization of logs from different sources in a myriad of formats. Centralized logging helps in identification of server or application issues from a common point.

Elastic Stack Components

Elastic Stack comprises of 4 main components.

  1. Elasticsearch: This is a RESTful search engine that stores or holds all of the collected data
  2. Logstash: This is the component that processes the data and parses it to elastic search
  3. Kibana: This is a web interface that visualizes logs
  4. Beats: These are lightweight data shippers that ship logs from hundreds/thousands of servers to the central server on which ELK is configured.

Let’s now see how you can install the Elastic stack on Ubuntu 18.04.

Prerequisites

Before you begin the installation ensure you should have the following infrastructure.

  1. Ubuntu server 18.04 LTS with root access and a non-root user plus ufw firewall. The following should be the minimum requirements of the server.
    • Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
    • 4 GB RAM
    • 2 CPUs
  2. Java 8 installed on your system which will be required by Elasticsearch and Logstash.
  3. NGINX installed on your server which will later be configured to handle Kibana. Recommended Read: Install Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04

With that said, let’s dive in and begin the installation of the Elastic stack on Ubuntu.

1. Install Elasticsearch on Ubuntu

First off, we are going to import Elasticsearch’s public GPG key into APT. Elastic stack packages are usually signed with Elasticsearch signing key to protect your system against package spoofing. In addition, authenticated packages are considered trusted by the package manager.

To import the GPG key run:

wget -qO - https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch | sudo apt-key add -

Next, add Elastic repository to the sources.list.d directory using the command below.

echo "deb https://artifacts.elastic.co/packages/6.x/apt stable main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-6.x.list

The output of the two commands is as shown:

Output

add Elastic Stack Key And Elastic Repository to Ubuntu 18

Now update the system’s repository using the command below.

sudo apt update

Sample Output

Sudo Apt Update Ubuntu

Now, install Elasticsearch using the command below.

sudo apt install elasticsearch

Output

Install Elasticsearch On Ubuntu 18.04

2. Configure Elasticsearch on Ubuntu

Elasticsearch listens on port 9200. However, we are going to limit outside access so that outside parties cannot access data and shut down the elastic cluster. That said, we are going to make a few modifications to the Elasticsearch configuration file as shown below

sudo nano /etc/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml

Find the network.host attribute and uncomment it and add localhost as its value. Also uncomment the http.port attribute.

Output


network.host: localhost
http.port: 9200

Next, start and enable Elasticsearch service as shown.


sudo systemctl start elasticsearch
sudo systemctl enable elasticsearch

Output

Start And Enable Elasticsearch on Ubuntu 18

At this point, Elasticsearch should be up and running. You can verify this by running the command below.

systemctl status elasticsearch

Output

Check Status Of Elasticsearch Ubuntu 18

You can also use the netstat command as shown.

netstat -pnltu

Nestat Command To Verify Elasticsearch in Ubuntu 18

Also, you can run the curl command as shown.

curl -X GET "localhost:9200"

Output

Curl Command In Ubuntu 18

Great! We have finalized the installation and configuration of Elasticsearch. Next, we are going to install and configure Logstash.

3. Installing and configuring Logstash

The second component of Elastic stack that we are going to install is Logstash. Logstash will be responsible for collecting and centralizing logs from various servers using filebeat data shipper. It will then filter and relay syslog data to Elasticsearch.

First, Let’s confirm that OpenSSL is running. To do that, run.

openssl version -a

Output

check Openssl Version in Ubuntu 18

To install Logstash, run the command below.

sudo apt install logstash -y

Output

Sudo Apt Install Logstash Ubuntu 18

Next, edit the /etc/hosts file and append the following.

18.224.44.11  elk-master

Where 18.224.44.11 is the IP address of the masterELk server.

We are then going to generate the SSL certificate key to secure the log data transfer from the client filebeat to the logstash server.

To do this, first, create a new SSL directory under the logstash configuration directory ‘/etc/logstash’ and navigate into that directory.


mkdir -p /etc/logstash/ssl
cd /etc/logstash/

Now you can generate the SSL certificate as shown below.

openssl req -subj '/CN=elk-master/' -x509 -days 3650 -batch -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout ssl/logstash-forwarder.key -out ssl/logstash-forwarder.crt

Next, we are going to create new configuration files for logstash. We will create a configuration file ‘filebeat-input.conf’ as input file from filebeat, ‘syslog-filter.conf’ for syslog processing, and lastly a ‘output-elasticsearch.conf’ file to define the Elasticsearch output.

Navigate to Logstash directory and create a ‘filebeat-input.conf’ in the ‘conf.d’ directory.

cd /etc/logstash/
vim conf.d/filebeat-input.conf

Paste the following configuration.

input {
  beats {
    port => 5443
    type => syslog
    ssl => true
    ssl_certificate => "/etc/logstash/ssl/logstash-forwarder.crt"
    ssl_key => "/etc/logstash/ssl/logstash-forwarder.key"
  }
}

Save and exit the text editor.

For the syslog processing log data, we are using the filter plugin named ‘grok’ for parsing of the syslog files.

Create a new configuration ‘syslog-filter.conf’.

vim conf.d/syslog-filter.conf

Paste the configuration below.


filter {
  if [type] == "syslog" {
    grok {
      match => { "message" => "%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:syslog_timestamp} %{SYSLOGHOST:syslog_hostname} %{DATA:syslog_program}(?:\[%{POSINT:syslog_pid}\])?: %{GREEDYDATA:syslog_message}" }
      add_field => [ "received_at", "%{@timestamp}" ]
      add_field => [ "received_from", "%{host}" ]
    }
    date {
      match => [ "syslog_timestamp", "MMM  d HH:mm:ss", "MMM dd HH:mm:ss" ]
    }
  }
}

Save and exit the text editor.

Finally, create a configuration file named ‘output-elasticsearch.conf’ for elasticsearch output.

vim conf.d/output-elasticsearch.conf

Paste the following content.


output {
  elasticsearch { hosts => ["localhost:9200"]
    hosts => "localhost:9200"
    manage_template => false
    index => "%{[@metadata][beat]}-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
    document_type => "%{[@metadata][type]}"
  }
}

Save and exit the text editor.

When that is said and done, enable and start the Logstash service.

sudo systemctl enable logstash
sudo systemctl start logstash

To verify that Logstash is running, run the command.

sudo systemctl status logstash

Sample Output

Systemctl Status Logstash Ubuntu 18

You can also use the netstat command as shown.

netstat -pnltu

Netstat Command To Check Logstash Running in Ubuntu 18

4. Install and configure Kibana on Ubuntu

Next, we are going to install Kibana using the command below.

sudo apt install kibana -y

Output

Install Kibana On Ubuntu 18

Next, we are going to make a few modifications to the kibana configuration file.

vim /etc/kibana/kibana.yml

Locate and uncomment the following attributes.


server.port: 5601
server.host: "localhost"
elasticsearch.url: "http://localhost:9200"

Save and exit the text editor.

Then enable and start the Kibana service:


sudo systemctl enable kibana
sudo systemctl start kibana

Output

Start And Enable Kibana On Ubuntu 18

You can confirm that kibana is running on it default port 5601 using the netstat command as shown.

netstat -pnltu

Output

Use Netstat To Confirm Kibana Is Running on Ubuntu 18

5. Installing and configuring NGINX as a reverse proxy for Kibana

We are using NGINX as a reverse proxy to kibana dashboards. You need to install Nginx and ‘Apache2-utils’ as shown below.

sudo apt install nginx apache2-utils -y

Output

Next, create a new virtual host file named kibana.

vim /etc/nginx/vim sites-available/kibana

Paste the following content into the virtual host file


server {
    listen 80;
 
    server_name localhost;
 
    auth_basic "Restricted Access";
    auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/.kibana-user;
 
    location / {
        proxy_pass http://localhost:5601;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection 'upgrade';
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_cache_bypass $http_upgrade;
    }
}

Save and exit the text editor. Recommended Read: NGINX location directive.

Next, create a basic authentication for the kibana dashboard using the htpasswd command as shown.

sudo htpasswd -c /etc/nginx/.kibana-user elastic
Type the elastic user password

Output

Create Basic Authentication For Kibana Dashbaord in Ubuntu 18

In the above example, the username is elastic and the password will be what you provide.

Next, activate the Kibana virtual host configuration and test Nginx configuration.

ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/kibana /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
nginx -t

Output

Activate Kibana Virtual Host File And Check Nginx Settings in Ubuntu 18

With no errors, enable and restart Nginx server.


systemctl enable nginx
systemctl restart nginx

6. Installing and Configuring Filebeat

In this step, we are going to configure filebeat data shipper on our elk-master server. This will relay all the syslog messages to logstash which will get processed and visualized by kibana.

To install filebeat run:

sudo apt install filebeat

Next, open the filebeat configuration file.

sudo vim /etc/filebeat/filebeat.yml

We are going to use Logstash to perform additional processing on the data collected by Filebeat. Filebeat will not be needed to send any data directly to Elasticsearch. Therefore, locate and Comment the elasticsearch section as shown.


#output.elasticsearch:
  # Array of hosts to connect to.
  #hosts: ["localhost:9200"]

Next, head out to the Logstash section and uncomment as shown.


output.logstash:
  # The Logstash hosts
  hosts: ["localhost:5044"]

Enable the filebeat prospectors by changing the ‘enabled’ line value to ‘true’.

enabled: true

Specify the system log files to be sent to the logstash server. In this example, we will add the ssh log file ‘auth.log’ and the syslog file.


  paths:
    - /var/log/auth.log
    - /var/log/syslog

Save and Exit.

Finally, copy the logstash certificate file – logstash-forwarder.crt – to /etc/filebeat directory.

cp ~/logstash-forwarder.crt /etc/filebeat/logstash-forwarder.crt

Now start and enable filebeat.


systemctl start filebeat
systemctl enable filebeat

To check the status of filebeat run:

systemctl status filebeat

Output

Check Filebeat Status Ubuntu 18

7. Testing Elasticsearch Stack

To test our Elastic stack, Open your browser and browse your server’s IP followed by port 5601 which is the port kibana listens to.

ip-address:5601

Enter the username and password and later, the following screen will be displayed.

kibana dashboard after logging in

Click on the ‘discover’ tab and click on ‘Filebeat’ The following interface will appear giving you live streaming of visualized data.

Kibana Filebeat Data

Congratulations! You have successfully installed and configured The Elastic Stack and the Elastic Beat ‘Filebeat’ on your Ubuntu 18.04 system.

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