What is Java Programming Language?

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What Is Java

What is Java?

Java is an Object-Oriented Programming Language. It was first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems in 2010 and now maintains the release and support of Java programming language.

Java applications support Write-Once-Run-Everywhere paradigm. It means that you can develop and compile a java program in one system and run the compiled code in any other type of operating system.

For example, you can write and compile a java application in Windows and then run it on Linux and Mac OS systems without any issues.

Java is used in almost every Fortune 500 companies. It’s still the most preferred language for server programming and enterprise applications.

What are the benefits of Java Programming?

  • Java is used by everyone. There are more 3 billion devices on which Java is running.
  • Java is free and open source. It has great documentation and community support.
  • We can create almost any type of application in Java. You can create standalone utility apps, web applications, web services, distributed, and highly scalable applications in Java.
  • There are tons of frameworks developed on Java. You can use Spring framework for web applications and web services, JUnit/TestNG for unit testing, Log4J for logging, etc. Most of these frameworks are free and open source.
  • Java allows us to create concurrent applications. It’s useful in creating applications that take advantage of the latest technological advancements, such as using multi-core CPUs efficiently.

What are the Core Components of Java?

The three core components of Java are:

  1. JDK: Java Development Kit is the core component of Java Environment and provides all the tools, executables and binaries required to compile, debug and execute a Java Program.
  2. JVM: Java Virtual Machine is the heart of Java programming language. When we run a Java program, JVM is responsible for converting the byte code to the machine-specific code. JVM is platform dependent and provides core java functions like memory management, garbage collection, security, etc.
  3. JRE: Java Runtime Environment is the implementation of JVM. It provides a platform to execute java programs. JRE consists of JVM, java binaries and other classes to execute any java program successfully.

Version History of Java

Java was originally conceptualized and developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems. It was first released for public use in 1995. Java 13 is the current and latest version of Java. From Java 10 onwards, there is a new major version release every 6 months.

Version Release Date Important Features
JDK Beta 1995 First Beta Version
Java 1.0 23 January 1996 First public release. The stable version Java 1.0.2 is called Java 1.
Java 1.1 19 February 1997
  • Inner Classes
  • Java Beans
  • JDBC
  • RMI
Java 1.2 8 December 1998
  • Swing
  • JIT Compiler
  • Collections
Java 1.3 8 May 2000
  • HotSpot JVM
  • JNDI
  • JPDA
Java 1.4 6 February 2002
  • Assertions
  • RegEx improvements
  • Image IO API
  • XML Parser
  • XSLT Processor
  • Preferences API
Java 5 30 September 2004
  • Generics
  • for-each loop
  • Varargs
  • Autoboxing
  • Enum
  • Annotations
  • Static imports
Java 6 11 December 2006
  • JAXB 2
  • JDBC 4.0 support
  • Pluggable annotations
Java 7 7 July 2011
  • String in switch statements
  • Try with Resource
  • Java NIO Package
  • Binary Literals
  • Catching Multiple Exceptions in a single catch block
Java 8 18 March 2014
  • forEach() Method in Iterable interface
  • default and static method in interfaces
  • Functional interfaces and Lambda expressions
  • Stream API
  • New Date Time API
Java 9 21 September 2017
  • JShell
  • Module System – Project Jigsaw
  • Reactive Streams
  • HTTP 2 Client
Java 10 20 March 2018 Local-Variable Type Inference
Java 11 25 September 2018
  • Running Java program from single command
  • New String Class methods
  • var for lambda expressions
Java 12 19 March 2019
  • Shenandoah Garbage Collector
  • Teeing Collectors
  • New methods in String class
  • Switch Expressions
Java 13 17 Sep 2019
  • Text Blocks
  • Switch Expressions Enhancements
  • Socket API Reimplementation

Should I learn Java in 2019?

Yes, Java is still one of the most popular programming languages. According to StackOverflow Developer Survey 2019, its popularity is almost the same as Python. It’s still the most preferred programming language for backend applications.

Comments

  1. kaspar lavik says:

    Thank you Pankaj for sharing this article with us. I learned history, benefits, features of Java programming from this article. Its really helpful to the java developers and readers too. I appreciate your hard work. Keep Sharing.

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